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Vitamin C Levels in Apples

figures show vitamin C
in mg per 100 grams apple##








EXPERIMENTAL
METHOD
under-
ripe
slightly
under-
ripe
fresh
off the tree
fairly
fresh
past
its
best
old
but
edible
APPLE
SOURCE
DESSERTS/
COOKERS
123456
LANGTON'S NONESUCH 24.0 Leics 12
SAM BELL 20.8 Leics 12
MM106

16.7
.
.
15.8
.
9.0
12.4
11.7
.
13.5
.
.
6.3
.
.
Leics 04
Leics 04
Leics 06
PINK PEARL . . 15.5 . . . Leics 11
BRAMLEY

.
. 15.1
.
11.3
12.1
10.8
.
10.4
.
Leics 04
Leics 06
BRAMLEY (CRIMSON)8.6Wye 04
STURMER PIPPIN5.516.28.3NFC 04
RIBSTON PIPPIN13.54.72.63.3Leics 04
GOLDEN NOBLE .
16.8
12.2
.
.
.
.
.
17.6
.
Leics 04
Leics 08
ALLEN'S EVERLASTING .
.
.
.
10.0
.
.
.
6.4
.
.
10.4
5.3
2.8
7.6
.
3.1
.
.
.
2.6
.
.
.
Leics 04
NFC 04
Leics 06
Leics 11
BLENHEIM ORANGE . . 10.1 . . . Leics 11
ROTER MOND 10.0 Leics 12
BREUNSDORFER 9.4 Leics 12
COX's ORANGE PIPPIN


.
. .
.
9.0
7.4
.
.
2.3
5.5
.
Sand 04
Leics 04
Nicholson
WEIROUGE . . . . 8.6 . Leics 11
CORNISH AROMATIC

.
. . . 7.1 5.2 Leics 04
BLACKJACK . . 7.4 . . . Leics 11
TYDEMAN'S LATE ORANGE . . . 5.6 . . Leics 11
LAXTON'S FORTUNE7.55.13.64.2Leics 04
D'ARCY SPICE6.63.62.12.1 Leics 04
ALLINGTON PIPPIN6.63.41.42.3Leics 04
HIDDEN ROSE . . 5.1 . . . Leics 11
RED DEVIL2.7 f6.4Leics 04
MAY QUEEN3.85.83.92.9Leics 04
#CROFT LATE SEEDLING*1.31.64.25.0Leics 04
ANNIE ELIZABETH7.7NFC 04
BURFORD'S REDFLESH . . . 5.1 . . Leics 11
MARGIL4.2NFC 04
WEST VIRGINIA SWEET . . 4.0 . . Leics 11
BELLE DE BOSKOOP . . . 3.7 . . Goslar, 11
WHITWICK PIPPIN . . 3.6 . . Leics 06
MARTIN'S COSTARD . . 3.5 . . Leics 08
RUBINETT . . 3.5 . . Goslar 11
GEORGE'S RED . . 2.9 . . Leics 08
HALL'S PINK . . . . 3.6 . Leics 11
DUMELOW'S SEEDLING3.4Leics 04
KING EDWARD VII1.23.35.6Leics 04
PITMASTON PINEAPPLE2.62.73.1Wye 04
PINK PEARMAIN . . . 2.6 . . Leics 11
WEBSTER PINKMEAT . . 2.6 . . . Leics 11
MOTT'S PINK....2.4.Leics 11
LORD BURGHLEY...2.5.2.2Wye 04
CLAYGATE PEARMAIN 3.4
2.1
1.4
.
1.1
.
1.3
.
Leics 04
Leics 06
GOLDEN DELICIOUS.
4.0
1.0
.
Leics 04
Nicholson
DEVONSHIRE QUARRENDEN .
.
.
.
2.1 f
1.4
.
.
.
.
.
.
Leics 04
Leics 08
TOM PUTT1.0Leics 04
NUTMEG PIPPIN...1.6..Wye 04
WYKEN PIPPIN1.4NFC 04
CROFT PIPPIN
(CHAPMAN'S COLOSSUS)
1.4Leics 06
ASHMEAD'S KERNEL...1.4..NFC 04
LAXTON'S SUPERB...1.43.4.Wye 04
SPARTAN...1.31.31.2Wye 04
EGREMONT RUSSET...1.0..Wye 04
AUTUMN PERMAIN...1.0.1.5Wye 04
MERTON KNAVE . . 1.3 f . . . Leics 04
.......
SHOP-BOUGHT
BRAEBURN
New Zealand
5.3Dec 04
COX ORANGE
Foreign, unspecified
2.6
2.7 s
Nov 04
RED DELICIOUS
American, waxed
1.4
1.4 s
Dec 04
.
CIDER APPLES
#CROFT SHARP5.53.01.71.6Leics 04
MICHELIN2.81.42.0Devon 04
ELLIS BITTERS1.02.2Devon 04
DABINETT1.3..3.0Devon 04
...
CRABS
#GOLDEN HORNET
seedling
2.0..2.2Leics 04


APPLES FROM GOTTINGEN
#BEINRODE
seedling
. . 10.1 . . . Gott 11
#GOLDEN APPLE
seedling
. . 3.5 . . . Gott 11
#BLACKFLESH
seedling
. . 3.2 . . . Gott 11


##These figures are for apples with skin but excluding the core. In our samples the core was about 4% of the apples' mass.

*I originally believed one of my trees to be ANNIE ELIZABETH but the apples, although similar, are harder than those in the Brogdale collection, hang later on the tree, and are smaller. We have therefore named this apple CROFT LATE SEEDLING in the table. Brogdale's tree is on M9; mine is on M26. -N.D.

KEY TO LOCATIONS
Devon = a cider farm outside Okehampton
Leics = Croft, Leicestershire
NFC = National Fruit Collection, Brogdale, Kent, courtesy of Emma-Jane Lamont
Sand = Sandringham, Norfolk
Wye = Perry Court Farm, near Wye, Kent
Goslar = Goslar, West Germany
Gott = Gottingen, West Germany

OTHER ABBREVIATIONS
# = not in National Fruit Collection
f = apple deep-frozen when fresh and analysed later
s = skin only
Nicholson - reference to a vitamin C determination by Nicholson, in Hort. Rev. 27, 2001, Wiley, p.272. He does not quote the ripeness of the fruit but we have assumed peak condition (3).

The earlier analyses were carried out for the National Fruit Collection. The later ones are being done for the Leicestershire Heritage Apples Project. The information may not be used in commercial publications without written permission.

Nigel Deacon / David Shirley

2005


Updated Nov 2011 & Nov 2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
To Amelia Summers, for assisting with the 2006 analyses.
To Geoff Smith of Wyggeston & Queen Elizabeth College, Leicester, for loan of equipment.

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